Indeed, a question which must have come in each one of your minds. However, the answer is still ambiguous. There are indeed a number of scientific and non-scientific claims as to what came before the Big Bang, however, none of them have been totally acceptable.
So, a group of mathematicians in Canada and Egypt has pursued analysis of some of the most amazing scientific theories. And, they have come up with a complex set of equations.
Which theories have they applied?
- They have applied the theories of the world of quantum mechanics to the entire universe.
- And, they further explained it by the theory of relativity.
What did they discover?
- They discovered that the universe travels through 4 different phases.
- So, before the universe came another universe or to put it more accurately a ‘cosmological phase’.
It is pertinent for the readers to know, that even when the universe is finite in size, it continues to be cyclical. So, the universe is expanding. And, it is this expansion which is indeed speeding up. However, the team believes that there is some modification, which is motivated by the process of quantum mechanics. And, it will sooner or later cease the expansion process. In fact, it will be this process which will pull the entire of it back to an infinite point. Yet again, it will be this stage wherein universe to start expanding again.
There is one paper titled “Non-singular and Cyclic Universe from the Modified GUP”. It was fabricated by Maha Salah, Mir Fazal, Faycal Hammad, Ahmed Farag Ali.
It is super complex. Hence, it will be easier for the readers to read the outlined points of the paper as put up by Prof. Mir Faizal.
In accordance with Mir Faizal:
- In the cosmological model, the universe did not initiate with the big bang. There was in fact a phase transition from one phase to another.
- The possibility is because the universe can exist in 4 different phases. This is very much like water exists in 3 phases.
- Just like it is possible to know the attributes of ice, from the study of water, so it is possible to know about the pre bang cosmology when there is pursued studies pertaining to the physics of the universe.
- The extrapolation of equation beyond the maximum rate of contraction ensures the emergence of cyclic universe scenario.
- There are many modes which have been suggestive of big bang and big crunch scenario. However, it is this model which has singularities. And it is not proper to have a singularity in physics. It is because it is not possible to avail meaningful results from the same.
- However, with the new cosmological model, there is nothing like singularity.
- In fact, the big bang singularity can be avoided by utilization of modified GUP-corrections to the cosmology.
Hence, in the cosmological model, the cyclic nature of the universe occurs. It is possible as a result of inculcating quantum effects into a cosmological model of the Universe.